What is an endoscope?

In modern medicine, there is an “instrument” that can freely access the human body. Its name is an endoscope. This kind of instrument can directly check the disease by extending the stomach through the endoscope into the human body like an “artificial tunnel”.

The endoscope consists of a very thin soft long metal tube and a probe. The soft long metal tube can be extended into the stomach through the mouth, into the trachea, and into the intestine through the anus. There is an optical fiber bundle in the endoscope tube. One end is connected with a light source to transmit the light to the other end of the endoscope to produce bright light. Otherwise, the interior of these organs will be “black and rumble”, and nothing can be seen clearly. Through the manipulator, doctors can make the head of the lens move and bend like a snake’s head to reach the part to be observed. The observed situation is transmitted to the TV monitor through the image transmission beam to become an image and then processed by the computer. Doctors can find the hair disease of these organs. If the probe of the endoscope is equipped with a camera, you can also take pictures. There is also a special hole in the tube of the endoscope, through which a micro scalpel can be installed, and the doctor can operate on the patient directly inside the organ without laparotomy; A slender clamp can also be installed to clamp a small amount of living tissue for pathological examination.

Since an endoscope can directly observe the lesions of human internal organs, it can greatly improve the detection rate of early diseases, which is particularly important for cancer, because the effect of early treatment of cancer is better than that of late treatment. Here, endoscopy can also make accurate diagnoses of some digestive diseases, such as stomach, duodenitis, or ulcer. In recent years, doctors have combined endoscopic technology with ultrasound technology to judge the depth of invasion of gastrointestinal tumors, distinguish benign and malignant tumors, and diagnose some other lesions.

In addition, endoscopy can also be used for treatment.

Local hemostasis under endoscope can avoid the complex process of hemostasis under operation, reduce the pain of patients, and achieve quick results. Endoscopic laser therapy can be applied to gastrointestinal diseases, such as bleeding and tumors.

Endoscopic laser is also suitable for the treatment of other diseases, such as intestinal polyps. The so-called intestinal polyp refers to the mass of proliferative tissue protruding from the intestinal cavity. Most of them are oval and have a pedicle connected with the intestinal mucosa. A few intestinal polyps can develop into cancer. The intestinal polyps can be removed by endoscopy. In addition, for patients with advanced visceral tumors, treatment can be used to relieve obstruction, alleviate symptoms and prolong life. In recent years, doctors have also developed a variety of new technologies, including high-frequency electrocoagulation of an endoscope, microwave treatment of endoscope, balloon and water bag expansion of endoscope, etc. On the one hand, these techniques can get a better therapeutic effect; On the one hand, they will expand the scope of treatment.

In daily life, people accidentally swallow foreign bodies, which can be observed by an endoscope. Under its guidance, the foreign bodies can be taken out, which avoids the pain of the operation, and is fast and convenient.

At present, there are many kinds of endoscopes in the world, including gastroscope, esophagoscopes, duodenoscope, enteroscopy, and colonoscopes. Recently, cardioscope and pyeloscope have been further developed.

What is microtechnology?

Microtechnology is a technology that can reduce the volume of objects. Microtechnology has solved many problems that human beings can not solve at present. Some people predict that it will “achieve great success” in the 21st century.

At present, there are a number of “fleas” in the medical laboratory, which are made by microtechnology. Its shapes are strange, its size is very small, and it is even illegible to the naked eye. They can go from heaven to earth, enter the blood vessels of the human body, remove silt and obstacles, and deliver drugs at fixed points and times. At the same time, like the monkey king, they can also drill into people’s stomachs to “stir up trouble” and destroy key parts, resulting in command paralysis… Microtechnology is really “big man, little ghost” and can do everything.

It is reported that French scientists have successfully developed a new intestinal detector, 4 cm long and about 1 cm in diameter. It is filled with electronic devices, including an automatic recorder, microcomputer, and micro gear. It looks like a spaceship, so it is known as a “human spaceship”.

After entering the human intestinal tract, the detector can move along the intestinal tract with the help of gears, and the situation in the intestinal tract can be truthfully displayed on the external electronic display screen through a microelectronic transmitter. It can also absorb intestinal fluid at a specific location, and use its own micro laboratory to analyze the acidity, temperature, systolic blood pressure, and degree of digestion of various foods in the intestine. If necessary, it can also apply medicine to the affected area according to the instructions.

At the top of the detector, a micro TV camera can be installed to broadcast the images along the way. If equipped with a micro scalpel or laser, it can be operated remotely in the abdominal cavity.

At present, thousands of scientists and engineers in the world are immersed in this pocket world composed of various micro machines, which represents the development trend of science and technology in the future. In the application of micro machines, people first think of medicine, and the micro human spaceship is an example.

Medical experts say that with micro machines, medicine has changed greatly. It is conceived that micro machinery can perform strange transportation in the blood, which can continuously monitor glucose concentration and transport insulin in diabetics.

At Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, experimenters successfully made a liquid wheel narrower than three hair strands. This liquid wheel, like a water wheel, rotates as blood flows through it. In this way, the device can be driven by the blood to remove the atherosclerotic deposits on the arterial wall along the artery.

Using micro scissors and micro-electric saw, precision surgery can be carried out, such as cutting the scar tissue of the retina. Experts at the University of California at Berkeley made a silicon bulb in 1991. It is thinner than hair. It can be installed on the needle of the syringe and cooperate with the optical sensor to check the suspicious tumor tissue in vivo. Micromachines can be used to kill cancer cells and viruses.

When the energy of micro machinery is exhausted, people are unconsciously discharged from the body. There is no need to worry that it will become garbage that can never be removed from the body.

Scientists also look forward to the bright prospect of the wide application of Micro Technology in medicine. Some medical scientists put forward the idea that the brightness of each light spot on a large flat-panel TV screen is controlled by a micromachine. In that way, if these micro machines are transported to various important parts of the human body, the health status of human tissues and organs can be displayed on this large screen, so that doctors can intuitively see the situation of these tissues and organs from the TV screen. This will be a breakthrough in diagnostic technology.

Whether it is the diagnosis method of “looking, smelling, asking and cutting” of ancient Chinese doctors or the injection and medicine of modern medicine, the “fuzzy processing” technology is adopted to a considerable extent. The microtechnology goes directly into the human body, just like a medical scientist dissects the tissue from the human body and observes it under a microscope. It is more scientific than the previous “X-ray detection” and some other diagnostic techniques. If the technology is more mature, the whole process from diagnosis to treatment can be completed directly in the human body with micro machinery.

The wide application of Micro Technology in medicine will cause a revolution in medicine, which may be more significant than the contribution of X-ray invention to medicine.

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